Are you interested to know about What is the DNS? How does it work?
Okay, you have come to the right place, as you are interested to know about the DNS servers.
What is the DNS ?
The Domain Name System (DNS) is one of the fundamental components of the internet, yet most people outside of networking probably don’t realize how much they using it every day to do their job, check their e-mail, or use their smartphones.
From your smartphone to the server that serves content for massive retail websites, all of the computers on the Internet find and communicate with one another by using numbers. These numbers are called IP addresses.
You don’t have to remember and enter a long number if you open a web browser and go to a website. However, you can use a domain name like example.com and still end up in the correct place.
A DNS service such as Amazon Route 53 translates human-readable domain names into IP addresses. That way, computers can connect to one another.
DNS works much like a phonebook by mapping names to numbers.
When a user types in a domain name into a web browser, DNS servers resolve domain names to IP addresses, determining which server they will reach. This type of request is known as a query.
About 3 decades ago, when the Internet was just beginning, if you wanted to visit a website, you had to know its IP address. That’s because computers were and still are only able to communicate with numbers.
Here is an example of IP address: 184.108.40.206.What is the DNS
It’s long, hard to remember, and we’re not robots. It was necessary to create a system for converting computer-readable data into human-readable data. It also had to be lightweight, quick, and scalable.
In the early 1980s, Paul Mockapetris created a system that automatically translated IP addresses into domain names, ultimately leading to the development of the DNS.
Today, the same system serves as the backbone of the Internet. The world knows that it exists, but only a small group of people understand what it does.
It is not so much the lack of knowledge that is the issue, but the lack of willingness to take the time to learn how it works in the first place.
It is important to understand how the DNS system works before we move on to how you can use it. As we know, IP addresses are translated into domain names, but where is this information stored? It’s on the nameservers!
Nameservers keep the DNS records, which tell what IP address goes to which domain. Is there somewhere on the Internet where you can look up the nameservers and DNS records for every site on it? There’s no way… that’s ridiculous.
Globally, they are distributed. The root nameservers store the TLD (Top Level Domains) locations rather than storing every domain ever.
TLDs are the two or three characters at the end of a domain name, such as .com. TLDs each have a set of nameservers that hold information about who is authoritative for storing the DNS records.
DNS providers or DNS registrars (like GoDaddy that offers both DNS registration and hosting) are typically the authoritative nameservers. As a result, we can see the DNS record that maps example.com to the IP address 127.66.122.88.
Let’s combine all of that information. Typically, your first step won’t be at the root name servers when querying a domain name.
Your browser will instead check whether the DNS records for that domain have been cached locally on your local name server.
Most ISPs (Internet Service Providers) host your name server, so if it’s a popular website like youtube.com, they likely have the record in their cache. The rest of the DNS lookup process would be skipped in this case.
These records, however, are only stored for a short time. You have the option of setting a TTL (Time to Live) for each record when you create it.
The TTL tells resolving name servers how long they can store the information. A TTL can range from 30 seconds to a week.
What if the record we are seeking isn’t cached?
When the resolving name server retrieves the TLD for that domain, it points you to the authoritative provider for hosting the records, which is the root name server.
Okay, that was quite a few steps just to find the IP address. This whole process takes just a couple of milliseconds. In simple terms, you blink your eye in approximately 50 milliseconds. It takes less than 30 seconds to resolve most DNS queries.
By default, when someone visits your website from a particular region of the world, the DNS records of your site are cached by local nameservers managed by local Internet providers.
Users from this region can then easily reach your website.
Despite this, DNS requests take time to resolve. Usually, this is measured in milliseconds and isn’t important for small businesses and blogs.
The majority of websites use the DNS servers provided by their hosting service or domain registrar.
Also, you can use a free DNS service provider such as Cloudflare that offers a faster free DNS with a limited firewall.
Usually, large businesses choose a paid DNS to get smart features like 100% uptime, faster lookup speeds, geo traffic redirection, secondary DNS, and increased security.
Thanks for reading this article. We hope it helped you understand what is the DNS as well as how it works.
Whenever you type in a domain name, your computer makes its request to a recursive DNS server, also known as a recursive resolver.
Recursive resolvers are usually operated by ISPs or third-party providers that know which other DNS servers to contact in order to resolve a site’s name with its IP address.
Those servers that hold the necessary data are known as authoritative DNS servers.
Domains can have multiple IP addresses. Many sites have hundreds of IP addresses that correspond to a single domain name.
If you type www.google.com into your browser, the server your computer reaches is likely completely different from the server that someone in another country would reach if they typed the same domain name into their browser.
There are many reasons for the distributed nature of the directory.
For example, you would take much longer to find a site if the directory was in only one location and shared with millions, probably billions, of people searching for information simultaneously.
DNS information is shared among many servers to get around this problem. Locally, however, client computers also cache information about recently visited sites.
It’s likely that you use Google regularly. Your computer does not need to query a DNS name server to resolve the IP address of google.com every time it searches.
It saves the information on your computer so it does not need to consult a DNS server to resolve the name.
In addition, caching can take place on the routers that connect clients to the internet and on servers of the Internet Service Providers (ISPs).
The amount of queries that actually reach DNS name servers is a lot lower than it seems with all the caching going on.
DNS servers are generally set up automatically by your network provider when you connect to the internet.
It’s possible to view your primary nameserver through a web utility, which will provide a lot of information about the current state of your network connection.
This is generally the recursive resolver. You can find lots of information at BrowserLeaks.com, including your current DNS servers.
CNAME is short for Canonical Name. Instead of an IP address, CNAME records are used to point domain names to another domain name.
Consider the following scenario: you would like to make sure your website is example.com, but you have also registered examples.com and would like that URL to point to your main website.
You can then set up CNAME records to redirect any visitor to examples.com to example.com instead.